What's New


This release includes Sesame 2.7.7 and is focused on stability and resilience . 

This version is compatible with any OWLIM database created with OWLIM since version 5.0.

The focus of this release is on stability, SPARQL compliance and performance improvements. In particular the following are worth mentioning:

  • Fixed delete performance degradation after several iterations of deleting large amounts of triples
  • Workbench "Explore" function now works for stores with large amounts of data
  • Fixes in the full-text search (FTS/Lucene) plug-in indexing configurations, related to parameters luc:excludePredicates, luc:includePredicates and deeper molecule sizes (moleculeSize > "2")

The OWLIM Enterprise Cluster should be more responsive under huge load; there is a new dedicated HTTPClient connection reserved for system requests (Master Node - Worker Nodes communication) and those system requests do not interfere with the other user query requests. Also write queries are executed across the cluster in two steps only (instead of three steps).

Sesame 2.7 has some significant differences in regard to transaction management. Transactions are now started with a call to begin() rather than implicitly when an update operation is started. If begin() is not used, then the behaviour reverts to what was previously called 'auto-commit', i.e. any update operation is committed immediately. HTTPRepository now supports background parsing/concurrent reading of results. For full details, please see the Sesame notes here. The bundled Sesame release (2.7.7) includes also correct handling of SPARQL "IN" operator and a number of parsing fixes and improvements in comparison to plain 2.7.

The bundled Apache Lucene library was updated to version 3.6.2 in preparation for a new statement-oriented full-text search plug-in that will be published in the near future. Several extensions have been made to OWLIM's plug-in API to support this, as well as to allow closer integration with some GATE-based text analytics components licensed separately from Ontotext.

Version 5.4 of OWLIM is available now. For a full list of updates, see the release notes for the relevant edition of OWLIM.

The OWLIM team
October 2013



This maintenance release includes Sesame 2.6.10 and some behavioural and operational improvements. Consistency checks in OWLIM-SE and OWLIM-Enterprise are now strictly enforced, forcing a rollback if a constraint is violated.

Monitoring and control functions have been expanded with the ability to terminate a runaway update transaction and it is now possible to put a global limit on the number of query results per query. Any queries that generate more results will have the remainder truncated. This feature can be useful for any public-facing SPARQL endpoints.

The Jena adapter layer for OWLIM-SE has been updated to version 2.7.3. This is also reflected in the TopBraid Composer plug-in. For the full list of updates see the OWLIM release notes.



This is a maintenance release that includes Sesame 2.6.8 and a variety of updates made available since OWLIM 5.1. This version is completely compatible with any OWLIM database created with OWLIM since version 5.0.

Many query optimisation problems that lead to slow SPARQL queries and updates have been fixed in OWLIM-SE and OWLIM-Enterprise, along with several improvements to the plug-in API.

For those who regularly use the getting started application as a bulk data loader, this has been updated to support uploading of files of any size (no separate converting and splitting of files is required). Combined with its export facility, the getting-started application can now be used as a backup/restore tool.

Support for the N-Quads RDF format has been added. This format is seeing growing use in the RDF community and is now supported in OWLIM internally - native support in Sesame will happen in the near future.

Also, resilience improvements to OWLIM-Enterprise have been made for handling out of disk-space problems and transient difficulties during replication.

For a full list of updates, see the release notes for the relevant edition of OWLIM.


This is a maintenance release that includes Sesame 2.6.6 and a variety of updates made available since OWLIM 5.0.

This version is completely compatible with any OWLIM database created with OWLIM version 5.0.

For OWLIM-SE and OWLIM-Enterprise, axiomatic statements from the rule-set are now considered to be inferred statements. This can help to make back-ups more straightforward, as well as being a more accurate interpretation of the data. Also, many users have found setting up the license files too complex, so this has been made easier with another option to do this using an environment variable.

For those who regularly use the getting started application as a bulk data loader, this has been updated to support HTTP authentication for security enabled OWLIM repositories.

The following list of issues have been resolved:


  • Full replication fails when using different platform specific local pathnames.

OWLIM-SE and OWLIM-Enterprise

  • Read-only (imported) statements loose their read-only status when migrating from previous versions
  • Increased memory demand due to delayed finalization
  • Plug-in API's statement modification methods (Statements.put/delete) don't allow modifications
  • Integer overflow in the compression module that results in exception whenever the overlay file grows beyond 2G.
  • Big query time increase when using plug-ins. It occurs when using the plug-in triple patterns in combination with an ordinary one which has a very large collection size and is placed before the plug-in triple pattern.
  • Incorrect query optimisation and/or a NullPointerException at query time. This problem can occur when estimating the number of matching triples for patterns containing a predicate for which there are no asserted statements in the repository.
  • Workaround to avoid unnecessary BottomUpJoinIteration(sub-selects intersection) when a sub-select is joined with an ordinary statement pattern or a join of such.
  • System statements filtered out from getContectIDs()
  • Memory leaks when Updates are mixed with queries involving unbound predicate variables that causes all unused indexes to be kept locked.
  • Apply external bindings prior to handle query optimization. Speeds up such queries by avoiding filters in 'AfterOptionals'
  • Collected Namespaces were not properly persisted on Windows
  • Added transactional handling of changes in properties file - fingerprints, namespaces, geometry, etc..
  • Rolled back transactions do not close transaction log files in a timely manner, leading to "too many open files" error when many rollbacks occur in sequence. Clean-up code has been relocated to ensure that it is called immediately.
  • Equivalence class updates do not close temporary files in a timely manner, leading to "too many open files" error when many transactions containing owl:sameAs statements are committed in sequence. Temporary files now removed immediately after the transaction completes.
  • Rebuild of predicate lists fails on Windows - the old files were locked and not deleted.
  • Repository lockfile is not released after failed initialisation. The new behaviour is to remove the lockfile if initialisation has failed and the lock file did not exist at the start of initialisation.
  • Schema updates should not allow removal of inferred statements.
  • Suboptimal query plan when using geo-spatial index
  • System contexts (from ternary relations in rule files) are visible to the Sesame workbench when browsing contexts
  • Namespaces lost when instance terminated


  • Race-condition causing 100% CPU utilisation when loading from multiple connections simultaneously.
  • Calling clear() does not reset statement counters, so that an incorrect number of statements are reported.
  • Inferences not computed for ontologies imported at initialisation
  • noPersist configuration parameter does not have any effect when deployed using Tomcat
  • Excessive number of worker threads spawned


OWLIM version 5.0 features a new transaction mechanism, performance improvements, SPARQL 1.1 graph store protocol, integration with TopBraid Composer/Live and many other improvements. The single most important new feature is the new transaction management mechanism which allows for much more reliable and efficient handling of workloads where queries from multiple clients are combined with frequent updates of the data. As benchmark results demonstrate, OWLIM 5.0 is 43% faster than v.4.3 on the BSBM Explore and Update scenario. As a result of several changes in the index structures, OWLIM now requires between 25% and 70% less storage space.

Some of the most important improvements are listed below:

  • Transaction management and isolation mechanisms have been completely refactored. The previous strategy used lazy writing of modified database pages, such that dirty pages were only flushed to disk when further updates occur and no more memory is available. While extremely fast, the problem with this approach is that there is a considerable recovery time associated with replaying the transaction log after an abnormal termination. The new mechanism uses two modes: 'bulk-loading' (fast) with similar behaviour to previous versions and 'normal' (safe) where database modifications are flushed to disk as part of the commit operation. When running in safe mode, database recovery is instant and there is a significant improvement in concurrency between updates and queries.
  • New context indices can be used to improve query performance when data is modeled using many named graphs. These are switched on and off using a single configuration parameter enable-context-index
  • The SPARQL 1.1 Graph Store HTTP Protocol is now supported according to the W3C Working Draft from the 12th May 2011. This provides a REST interface for managing collections of graphs, using either directly or indirectly named graphs.
  • Sesame 2.6.5 with many bug-fixes and updates to bring SPARQL 1.1 Query support up to the latest W3C Working Draft from the 5th January 2012.
  • Significant reduction in disk-space requirements is achieved with the following modifications:
    • Index compression can now be used to reduce disk storage requirements by using zip compression on database pages. This feature if off by default, but can be switched on when creating a new repository. The configuration parameter index-compression-ratio can be set to -1 (the default value indicating no compression) or a value in the range 10-50 indicating the desired percentage reduction in page sizes. Any pages that can not be compressed by the specified amount are stored uncompressed. Therefore a compression ratio that is too aggressive will not bring many benefits. Experiments have shown that for large datasets a value of about 30% is close to optimal and leads to a total disk space saving of around 50%.
    • Restructuring of the triple indices has also led to a reduction in disk-space requirements of around 18% independent of the compression functionality
    • Entity compression is a modification that reduces the storage requirements for the lookup table that maps between internal identifiers and resources. This is transparent to the user and happens automatically. More disk space reductions are apparent using this version.
  • A new literal index is created automatically for numeric and date/time data-types. The index is used during query evaluation if a query or a subquery (e.g. union) has a filter that is comprised of a conjunction of literal constraints, e.g. FILTER(?x >= 3 && ?y <= 5 && ?start > "2001-01-01"^^xsd:date). Other patterns, including those that use negation, will not use the index for this version of OWLIM.
  • All control queries now use SPARQL Update syntax (used mostly to control the Lucene-based full-text search, RDF Rank and geo-spatial plug-ins). This has a number of advantages, namely:
    • No special control query pseduo-graph is required by the Replication Cluster master in order to identify control queries that must be pushed to all worker nodes
    • SPARQL Updates use the corresponding SPARQL update protocol, so they can be automatically processed by load-balancers that examine URL patterns
    • It is more consistent with the SPARQL language, since these 'control queries' cause a change of state in OWLIM
  • Incremental Lucene-based full-text search index for updating the index for specific resources or all un-indexed resources. Using this technique can avoid the more expensive approach of rebuilding the whole index frequently.
  • Incremental RDF Rank allows the RDF rank for specific resources to be (re-)computed as directed by the user. This technique can avoid the more expensive approach of rebuilding all RDF Rank values frequently.
  • As well as the cache/index statistics, performance analysis data is now provided about currently executing queries including: how many results have been returned so far, how long it has been executing, average time to return each result, etc.
  • The getting started application has been restructured so that it now works with remote repositories.

Known problems with OWLIM 5.0

  • The behaviour of the 'include inferred' checkbox in the Sesame Workbench is unpredictable when using OWLIM repositories.
  • This version of OWLIM is not backwardly compatible with any previous version. This means that images created with OWLIM 4.3 and before will not work correctly with OWLIM 5.0 and must be re-created. There have been a great many modifications to the storage files, indexing structures, etc, and upgrade mechanisms have proven too complex and probably slower than re-loading the database anyway. Please do not attempt to upgrade to OWLIM 5.0 unless you drop and recreate all databases. A migration tool, which allows for automated re-loading of data from any Sesame-accessible repository, is provided to ease the transition.

For further technical information and references to resolved technical issues, please refer to the Release notes of the corresponding edition of OWLIM. Full documentation for all OWLIM editions is available online (click on the OWLIM 5.0 link on the left hand side).


This release has been coordinated with the latest release of the Sesame openRDF framework which has seen contributions from Ontotext and our partners FluidOps.
OWLIM 4.3 is bundled with Sesame 2.6 to deliver SPARQL 1.1 Federation. This emerging SPARQL standard provides a means to distribute queries over multiple SPARQL end-points. The big advantage of this technology is the ability to enrich query results by 'joining' to other 3rd party resources, e.g. linked data services that provide a SPARQL interface.
Many of the advanced features of OWLIM are implemented as plug-ins and the API for building such extensions has been made public for this release. OWLIM plug-ins can communicate and share data via various 'hooks' in to the processing pipelines. This allows custom indices to be used, and opens up many possibilities for improving performance and adding novel features.
There have been many other fixes and improvements for OWLIM, including many query optimisations. Query time-limits are now easier to specify - an important feature for protecting against over-use in public facing services. Also, shutdown handling has been optimised to drastically reduce the time taken to shutdown after a large load.

OWLIM Version 4.2

This version has been developed in parallel with the Sesame openRDF framework where Ontotext continue to invest development resources. It is bundled with Sesame 2.5 to deliver SPARQL 1.1 Update. This emerging SPARQL standard provides a much more powerful method to modify RDF databases without the requirement for developers to use frameworks and APIs. SPARQL 1.1 Query conformance has been brought up to the May 2011 working draft, i.e. all the remaining behaviour has been implemented along with all the new SPARQL filter functions.

This version of OWLIM-SE is already in use as the engine behind The National Archive's Semantic Knowledge-base (SKB). This installation is used to store government datasets, the FactForge dataset and metadata totalling almost 12 billion statements with high-performance query-answering. Updating queries in this environment to use SPARQL 1.1 Query features has in some cases shown dramatic hundred-fold improvements in query performance.

Using SPARQL 1.1 features through the sesame interface of OWLIM (instead of the Jena interface adapter) has shown a dramatic improvement in the explore-update and business-intelligence use-cases of the Berlin SPARQL Benchmark (BSBM). Updated results will be published in the very near future.

OWLIM Version 4.1

This is a maintenance release of the OWLIM family of RDF databases and addresses a number of bug fixes in both OWLIM and Sesame, together with some performance improvements over version 4.0.
This latest version is bundled with Sesame 2.4.2 which includes many fixes for SPARQL 1.1 Query support, especially those relating to aggregate functions and complex GROUP BY expressions. Some issues with property paths have also been dealt with.
OWLIM-SE and OWLIM-Enterprise have also been updated with fixes relating to query evaluation logic and improvements in query performance. Some problems when using named graphs with the Jena adapter have also been addressed.

OWLIM Version 4.0

This is a major development for the OWLIM family of RDF Databases and offers a number of fundamental changes aimed at better differentiation between the editions of the product as well as some important new features and enhancements.

With this release, Ontotext have rebranded their line of OWLIM editions and introduced a new member of the family:

  • OWLIM-Lite is the new name of SwiftOWLIM
  • OWLIM-SE (Standard Edition) is the new name of BigOWLIM; it is positioned as a single-server product,
  • OWLIM-Enterprise is an extension of OWLIM-SE, which includes the Replication Cluster capabilities. It is priced and sold as a separate product intended for scalable, high-resilience, mission-critical installations, offering extended online re-configuration and other features which improve manageability

Scalability to 1 trillion nodes: A brand new indexing mechanism has been developed for OWLIM-SE that uses a configurable bit-size for internal identifiers of nodes in the RDF graph (URIs, blank nodes and literals). For very large datasets, the bit-size can be set to 40 bits, allowing up to 1 trillion unique entities to be stored.

Faster SPARQL 1.1 Query support: Thanks to Ontotext's investment in development resource for the Sesame project, all OWLIM editions now boast support for this evolving SPARQL standard. While handling of SPARQL 1.1 through Jena was fast enough to allow OWLIM to get excellent scores in the latest BSBM evaluation, using SPARQL 1.1 through Sesame makes it even faster and available in all editions of OWLIM. SPARQL 1.1 Query specification offers new features such as: Aggregates, Subqueries, Negation, Expressions in the SELECT clause, Property Paths, Assignment, Short form for CONSTRUCT and an expanded set of functions and operators. Federation will be supported in a subsequent release.

Easy server deployment: every edition of OWLIM includes re-packaged Sesame Web applications for easy deployment of OWLIM servers. Now OWLIM can be deployed simply by copying a WAR file. New OWLIM repository instances can be created using the Sesame Workbench UI administration tool.

There are number of other new features for specific editions:

  • OWLIM-SE now provides a remote notification mechanism that includes transaction information.
  • Performance analytics: OWLIM-SE provides information on cache utilization and behavior through a JMX interface. This feature can be useful when investigating loading behavior and query performance.
  • OWLIM-Lite is now packaged as a single jar file, with a simpler free-for-use licensing scheme.

BigOWLIM Version 3.5

BigOWLIM 3.5 includes some updates to existing features, plus a range of new ones:

  • All OWLIM plug-ins available with Jena interface: All the BigOWLIM advanced features are now fully supported when using BigOWLIM with the Jena framework. This includes RDF Rank, RDF Search, Node Search, RDF Priming and Geo-spatial extensions.
  • Remote notifications: A new mechanism to complement the existing high-performance 'in-process' notification mechanism. This new mechanism allows clients to subscribe for the given statement patterns to remote BigOWLIM repository instances.
  • Schema editing: Read-only schemas loaded at database initialization time allow very fast deletion of (instance) statements by using the 'fact-retraction' method that computes the necessary inferred statements to delete. A new mechanism is provided with this release that allows 'read-only' schema statements to be modified when necessary.
  • Configuration spreadsheet tool: The memory calculator from previous versions has been updated to estimate appropriate BigOWLIM configurations for the specified hardware, dataset characteristics and selected features.
  • Query optimizations: Several improvements have been made to query optimization, including the special case when using ORDER BY with LIMIT/OFFSET.
  • Online documentation: As well as the PDF format user guides included in the OWLIM distribution zip files, the latest documentation for all editions of OWLIM is now available online.
  • Storage files updated automatically: There are minor differences in storage file formats between versions. Versions of files back to 3.1 are now detected and updated automatically.
  • owl:sameAs optimization can be disabled: The owl:sameAs optimization can now be switched off using the disable-sameAs configuration parameter. This update might be useful when using the empty or rdfs rulesets.
  • Lucene-base full-text search enhancements: Even more fine-grained control over what to include in the indexed RDF molecule. Separate include/exclude lists are now supported for both predicates traversed and entities visited.

BigOWLIM Version 3.4

BigOWLIM 3.4 includes many bug fixes, several new features and some updates:

  • Jena adapter (BETA): Applications which use the Jena framework or Jena-compliant RDF stores can seamlessly switch to BigOWLIM to take advantage of efficient loading and high-performance reasoning. At the same time, Jena's ARQ engine allows BigOWLIM to handle the latest SPARQL 1.1 extensions (e.g. aggregates). The adapter is still a beta version and has not been rigorously tested for conformance yet, but can be used with Joseki to make queries and has successfully passed BSBM and LUBM benchmarks. The results suggest that for most of the scenarios and tasks BigOWLIM can deliver considerable performance improvements when used as a replacement for Jena's own native RDF backend TDB.
  • Geo-spatial extensions: Applications can efficiently make queries involving constraints such as "nearby point" and "within region". Special-purpose indices allow such constraints to be evaluated very efficiently on top of large volumes of location-related data, for example, finding airports within 50 miles of London in the GeoNames dataset (92 million statements, describing more than 6 million geographic features all over the world) becomes 500 faster when compared to the same query evaluated without the geo-spatial indices.
  • OWL2-QL support: This OWL2 profile is based on DL-LiteR, a variant of DL-Lite that does not require the unique name assumption. It is designed to be amenable to implementation on relational databases, due to its suitability for re-writing queries to SQL. This release includes a rule-set for this profile in order to expand the range of standard rule-sets and to give users more flexibility when choosing a balance between complexity of inference and scalability.
  • Rule engine enhancements, improving reasoning performance: The rule-engine now supports the ability to use context as part of rule premises and consequences. This allows for more efficient processing of certain RDFS/OWL constructions, particularly those rules using RDF lists. All predefined rule-sets have been upgraded to make use of this new expressiveness. As a result, there is now just a single rule-set for OWL2-RL, where in the last version there was a 'conformant' and a 'reduced' version. The new rule engine has lead to an improvement in LUBM loading performance of around 22%.
  • Enhanced Lucene-based full text search: More flexibility is enabled for using Lucene full-text search. Users can create multiple customized indices and can decide whether to include URIs or literals, select literals by language tags, and use custom analyzers and scorers. Any number of custom indices can be used within the same query.
  • Auto-restore: A configurable policy parameter can be used to specify how the user wishes the repository to start after an abnormal termination. By default, the database restorer tool will be run automatically to return the database to the state prior to the stop event, i.e. to the state after the last committed transaction.
  • Simplified 'implicit-only' statement retrieval: When using the Sesame API to return statements, the 'implicit' pseudo-graph is now used. This is simpler and more consistent with query processing than the old method of invoking RepositoryConnection.getStatements() twice.
  • Documentation: The distribution package includes two new guides: Replication Cluster Quick Start Guide that has details on installing and configuring a cluster and Performance Tuning Guide that brings together all information for optimizing loading time, inference and query processing.

BigOWLIM Version 3.3

BigOWLIM 3.3 consolidates a number of advances and new features, some of which have been available in previous versions as prototype implementations. The most important differences, compared to the previous versions of BigOWLIM are:

  • Clustering support: The BigOWLIM software suite includes an additional Replication Cluster component that serves as a Master node for a cluster. Its purpose is to manage and distribute atomic requests (query evaluations and update transactions) to a set of standard BigOWLIM instances.
  • Full-text search: Two approaches are implemented in BigOWLIM, a proprietary technique that uses special system predicates and a separate implementation that uses the Lucene text search utility. Both of them enable OWLIM to perform complex queries against character data, which significantly speeds up the query process.
  • High performance retraction of statements: BigOWLIM stores explicit and implicit statements (inferred from the explicit statements). When explicit statements are removed from the repository, any implicit statements that rely on the removed statement must also be removed. In this version, removal of explicit statements is achieved by invalidating only those inferred statements that can no longer be derived in any way, which massively improves statement deletion efficiency.
  • Powerful and expressive consistency/integrity constraints: Consistency checking rules have two forms - with consequences (used to check that certain inferences have occurred) and without consequences (which indicate inconsistency when the premises are satisfied).
  • RDF Rank: This is an algorithm that identifies the more important or more popular entities in the repository by examining their interconnectedness. The popularity of entities can then be used to order query results in a similar way to internet search engines, such as how Google orders search results using PageRank.
  • RDF Priming: This is a technique that selects a subset of available statements for use as the input to query answering. It is based upon the concept of "spreading activation" as developed in cognitive science. It is a scalable and customizable implementation of the popular connectionist method on top of RDF graphs. It allows "priming" of large datasets with respect to concepts relevant to the context and to the query.
  • Notification: This is a publish/subscribe mechanism for receiving events from a BigOWLIM repository whenever new triples matching a certain graph pattern are inserted. The user of the notifications API registers for notifications by providing a SPARQL query.
  • Multi-threaded rule compiler: Using this compiler, the generated inference engine can exploit multi-core and multi-processor hardware to greatly improve inference speed and thus improve load times.

BigOWLIM Version 3.0b5

BigOWLIM 3.0b5 represents the first public release of BigOWLIM, which is compliant with the Sesame 2.x and uses the new Unified TRREE architecture. The most important differences, compared to the previous versions of BigOWLIM (ver. 0.9.x/2.0) are:

  • efficient native support for a "rich RDF model", including named graphs and triplesets;
  • SPARQL support, based on the parser of Sesame and proprietary query optimization techniques;
  • smooth data loading - in the previous generation, BigOWLIM 0.9.x needed to rebuild its indices after loading some amount of data and this operation caused growing overheads for larger datasets, limiting its scalability. Such an operation is no longer required and operation are smooth as the datasets grow;
  • better scalability, through 40-bit statement identifiers.

BigOWLIM 3.0 sets the new threshold for scalable reasoning: it is the first engine that managed to demonstrate efficient reasoning against 2.7 billion statements. In the framework of the LUBM benchmark BigOWLIM managed to load the LUBM(20000) dataset. The forward-chaining reasoning over this dataset resulted in materialization of about 1.9 billion statements, thus the total amount of statements stored in the repository went up to 4.6 billion. Loading, storing, and indexing (without inference) of the data took as little as 17 hours, demonstrating a minimal slowdown compared to loading 1 billion statements (from 48 KSt./sec. for 1BSt. to 44 KSt./sec. in 2.7BSt). This result indicates excellent scalability in terms of speed. Loading, with inference, took 72 hours, delivering inference speed above 10K st./sec. - unmatched by any competitor at any comparable scale.

SwiftOWLIM Version 3.5

This release includes many bug fixes and enhancements, the most significant of these are:

  • Online documentation: As well as the PDF format user guides included in the OWLIM distribution zip files, the latest documentation for all editions of OWLIM is now available online.
  • Artificial limit on ruleset size removed: Very large custom rule-sets were causing out of memory exceptions or problems during compilation. The size of rule-sets is now practically unlimited.
  • Bug Fix - Data loss from abnormal termination: This fix prevents data from being lost after two successive abnormal terminations. This was due to a misidentification of backup files.
  • Bug Fix - Synchronization problem: A synchronization problem led to intermittent incorrect query answering of the LUBM-1 functional test. The issue appeared at an average of 1 of 80 runs and it was due to bad read-write synchronization when adding to collections.

SwiftOWLIM Version 3.4

This release includes one new feature and several important bug fixes:

  • OWL2-QL: This OWL2 profile based on DL-LiteR, a variant of DL-Lite that does not require the unique name assumption. It is designed to be amenable to implementation on relational databases, due to its suitability for re-writing queries to SQL. This release includes a rule-set for this profile in order to expand the range of standard rule-sets and to give users more flexibility when choosing a balance between complexity of inference and scalability.
  • Bug Fix - Concurrent commits: An important race condition has been eliminated that can cause SwiftOWLIM to enter an infinite loop when multiple concurrent users commit updates simultaneously.
  • Bug Fix - Losing data between shutdown and restart: In some circumstances when running on Windows machines, data was being lost after serializing to disk during shutdown. This was due to the case-insensitivity of Windows operating systems. Special care is now taken with the naming of storage files for each of the predicates used in the repository.

SwiftOWLIM Version 3.3

SwiftOWLIM 3.3 includes functionality to bring it inline with what is offered in BigOWLIM 3.3, together with a range of bug fixes and maintenance updates that have occurred over the last year.

  • OWL2-RL: full inference support for this OWL2 profile, but without the consistency checks
  • Documentation: improved user documentation with new quick start guide
  • partialRDFS: this flag has been deprecated and the optimizations made available with extra rule-set options
  • Ontology imports: importing ontologies can be achieved using a URL as well as a local pathname
  • Better JDK integration: custom rule-sets require the Java compiler, but does not now need the tools.jar in the classpath

A number of maintenance updates and bug fixes are included in this release, the most significant of which are:

  • Incorrect handling of transactions in SwiftOWLIM
  • Getting statements from an invalid context returns the full dataset
  • Clearing a single context in SwiftOWLIM clears the whole repository
  • Rule '<C> rdf:type <owl:Class> => <C> rdfs:subClassOf <owl:Thing>' not working

SwiftOWLIM Version 3.0b7

SwiftOWLIM 3.0 represents the first public release of SwiftOWLIM, compliant with Sesame 2.x and using SwiftTRREE engine, based on the so-called Unified TRREE architecture. The latter allows a higher level of code sharing between SwiftTRREE and BigTRREE and greater flexibility. An essential difference is that the new TRREE architecture supports the so-called rich RDF data model, which allows for efficient management of named graphs and triplesets (for more information on the data model, please see the data model specification of ORDI).

The major functional changes in SwiftOWLIM 3.0b7 compared to version 2.9.1 can be summarized as follows:

  • Sesame 2.x: from version 3.0 onwards SwiftOWLIM is compliant with Sesame 2.x (instead of 1.2.x). The newer version of Sesame comes with serious re-engineering of its architecture and multiple new features. One of the most notable changes is the adoption of a quadruple data model in its APIs; although the fourth element is named "context", it facilitates smooth support for named graphs. Further, it supports a range of new languages and syntaxes, e.g. SPARQL, TRIX, TRIG;
  • SPARQL support: multiple optimizations in the basic SPARQL query evaluation support of Sesame allow for better query evaluation performance;
  • Single-threaded inference: the multi-threaded inference capability of SwiftOWLIM 2.9 is still not implemented in the new architecture;
  • Instant initialization: the contents of the repository (including the inferred statements) are kept in a proprietary binary format, which allows for instant initialization;
  • Multi-threaded rule compiler: making the scenario of launching multiple OWLIM repositories, which use different custom rulesets, within a single process;
  • Multiple bug-fixes and improvements: earlier beta versions of SwiftOWLIM 3.0 have been provided to partners and pilot customers, which helped with early identification of various issues and corresponding fixes.

SwiftOWLIM Version 2.9.1

Major changes in SwiftOWLIM version 2.9.1, 10 September 2007, compared to version 2.9.0:

  • 1000 properties fix: an internal limitation of TRREE for handling up to 1000 unique properties was removed.
  • Fix for using custom rule-sets under OSGI: two JVM properties (Dtrree.jar.file and Dopenrdf-model.jar.file) are now considered to allow usage of custom rule-sets in environments that use custom class-loader schemes, e.g. the OSGI frameworks.
  • Minor extensions of the OWL support: rules and axioms added to the rule-set owl-maxRules_builtin.pie to support the reflexivity of owl:sameAs and the fact that all OWL classes are sub-classes of owl:Thing and their instances are owl:Thing-s.
  • Minor fix in the owl-max rule-set: an incorrect rule caused significant degradation in performance for some datasets when the partialRDFS parameter is set to false.
  • partialRDFS versions of the rule-set files discarded: in previous versions, there was a pair of rule-set files for each of the predefined rule-sets, except empty - one version with partialRDF optimizations and one without them. The versions with the optimizations are now excluded because they can be derived automatically, following the behavior of the TRREE rule compiler, which is documented.
  • Sesame 1.2.7 bundled in the release.

SwiftOWLIM Version 2.9.0

Major changes in SwiftOWLIM version 2.9.0, 12 June 2007, compared to version 2.8.4:

  • Multi-threaded inference: loading speed improves 37-71% on a dual-CPU (4-core) server, depending on the rule-set; 33% speed up on a desktop machine (P4 with hyper-threading);
  • Improved transaction isolation: corresponding to READ COMMITTED level in RDBMS;
  • Transitive closure optimization: the materialization of the “closure” of transitive properties can be switched off. This prevents the generation of O(N2) implicit statements, for a chain of N individuals connected through a transitive property. This optimization improves dramatically the scalability and performance on datasets with long “chains” of transitive properties;
  • Stack-safe inference: in ver. 2.8.3/4 a “stack-safe” mode, was allowing handling very “deep” inference chains; in this mode, OWLIM was slower. Now the reasoning algorithm is stack-safe without performance penalty or need of a specific configuration parameter;
  • Improved management of implicit and explicit statements: separate retrieval of explicit and implicit statements is straightforward;
  • Rule compiler fix: now it can process rules with virtually unlimited number of premises.
  • Getting-started introduced: a sample application setup (incl. source code, binaries, scripts, and configurations), allowing for easy bootstrapping of applications that use OWLIM;
  • WordNet: a sample application loading W3C's RDF/OWL representation of WordNet is provided;
  • Distribution improvements: OWLIM is now packed with all libraries necessary to run it; numerous improvements to the accompanying scripts make running OWLIM trivial.

BigOWLIM Version 0.9.2-Beta

Major changes in BigOWLIM version 0.9.2-Beta, 4 Oct. 2006, compared to version 0.9-Beta:

  • Query evaluation fixes: few problems, related to proper handling of Sesame construct queries, were fixed in BigTRREE; they were detected after a bug report from a user;
  • Equivalence classes support fixes: some owl:sameAs statements were not properly inferred in the previous version;
  • Initialization from file images fixed: some bugs related to the generation of B-Nodes and some of the in-memory structures were fixed;
  • Temporary file creation fixed: improper handling of relative storage folder name was causing problems with temporary file creation;
  • The new features from SwiftOWLIM v.2.8.4, were introduced in the BigOWLIM version as well: semantics customization support; command line parameters; fixes in the owl-max rule-set; Linux shell scripts were added.

An update to the distribution package of SwiftOWLIM v.2.8.4 also took place on 30 Sept. 2006 - it includes updated documentation and some fixes to the accompanying scripts.

SwiftOWLIM Version 2.8.4

Major changes in SwiftOWLIM version 2.8.4, 16 Sept. 2006, compared to version 2.8.3:

  • Custom inference: the TRREE rule compiler became part of the distribution, which allows using custom rule-sets for inference (see section 6.3 of the System Documentation for more detailed information). This way one can specify semantics that best fits the particular application in terms of expressivity and performance;
  • Command line parameters: some of the OWLIM parameters can now be passed through the command line. In the previous versions, they could be specified only as SAIL parameters in the system.conf file of Sesame or programmatically.
  • Minor fixes in the owl-max rule-set: they allow for covering some extra cases of A-Box reasoning and eliminate most of the cases when B-Nodes have been generated.
  • Linux shell scripts: Linux scripts were added to the distribution, which helps to control (start/stop) a standalone version of OWLIM and running tests. In the previous versions, such scripts were available only for Windows.

SwiftOWLIM Version 2.8.3

Major changes in version 2.8.3, compared to version 2.8.2:

  • Improved concurrency: several improvements took place to allow swift handling of hundreds of simultaneous users.
  • Stack-safe mode: a new stackSafe parameter allows switching the engine in a slower mode and prevents stack overflows that could occur for some datasets and ontologies in the standard mode.
  • Namespace fix: improper handling of namespaces in queries and elsewhere was fixed.
  • Serialization fix: the main storage file was serialized in NTriples, disregarding the dataFormat parameter – fixed, Turtle and RDF-XML are properly supported now.
  • Persistence control fix: the noPersist parameter was not supported properly – fixed; this parameter switches off any persistence, i.e. OWLIM runs 100% in-memory.
  • eLUBM benchmark: eLUBM is an extended version of the LUBM benchmark, developed by IBM’s IODT team, to allow evaluation of more comprehensive reasoning over OWL DL and Lite. eLUBM is provided with OWLIM as an extension of the standard LUBM benchmark.

Version 2.8.2

Major changes in version 2.8.2, compared to version 2.8:

  • TRREE: OWLIM uses the TRREE engine for in-memory reasoning and query evaluation. TRREE is a newer version of the IRRE engine that was part of OWLIM v.2.8.
  • 7 different inference modes: OWLIM can be configured to work with one of three pre-build sets of rules that support respectively the semantics of RDFS, OWL Horst, and a specific fragment we name owl-max (combining OWL Lite with unrestricted RDFS). These rulesets can be altered to “partial-rdfs” mode, when some of the normative RDFS entailments are discharged for performance reasons. In addition, the entailment is made optional, so that it is possible to switch it off completely and to use OWLIM as a plain RDF store.
  • Extended OWL support: owl:oneOf, owl:minCardinality, owl:maxCardinality, owl:cardinality; partial OWL-Lite T-Box (schema-level) reasoning added.
  • Configurable index size: allows the user to manage the trade-off between required RAM and performance.

Version 2.8

Major changes in version 2.8, compared to version 2.0:

  • IRRE: OWLIM uses IRRE for in-memory reasoning and query evaluation. Sesame's standard in-memory SAIL, implementing the RDFSchemaRepository, is no longer used.
  • Upload and reasoning speed up: there is a major improvement to the upload and reasoning speed due to using IRRE.
  • Persistence: Persistence implementation was changed, but it is still compatible with the previous releases of OWLIM in terms of storage formats and SAIL configuration options.
  • Multi-threading: The inference process is not multi-threaded and not even thread-safe. It requires special attention if used in a multi-thread context. OWLIM still uses multi-threading for other functions (e.g. persistence).
  • Extended support for OWL: intersectionOf, unionOf, AllDifferent, someValuesFrom are already handled in this version.

Version 2.0

Major changes in version 2.0, compared to version 1.0:

  • Sesame 1.2.1: compliance with Sesame release 1.2.1 (the previous version was compatible with Sesame 1.1).
  • Upload speed up: there is a major improvement to the upload speed, through caching add triples operation.
  • Persistence alignment with Sesame: persistence organization is now converged to the standard Sesame mechanism for synchronization of the repository contents with its persistence file.
  • Concurrent multi-thread inference: it delivers serious improvements of the inference (and thus repository modification) speed for machines with multiple processors or Hyper-Threading.
  • Extended support for OWL: support for allValuesFrom, hasValue, equivalentClass was added; the support for equivalentProperty was improved.
  • RMI access enhancements: the SailAccessor interface was enriched with some methods to retrieve the access rights of a repository and extract/export its content.